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Coleridge, Wordsworth and Keats

Coleridge, Wordsworth and Keats

 WILLIAM WORDSWORTH:
William Wordsworth was born in Cumberland in the English Lake District in 1770.
1791 he graduated from St John's Colleg
 WILLIAM WORDSWORTH:
William Wordsworth was born in Cumberland in the English Lake District in 1770.
1791 he graduated from St John's Colleg

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Coleridge, Wordsworth and Keats

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WILLIAM WORDSWORTH: William Wordsworth was born in Cumberland in the English Lake District in 1770. 1791 he graduated from St John's College in Cambridge. 1790 he had been in France. During this period he comes in contact with the democratic ideals of the French Revolution. In 1793 William Wordsworth for: The developments of the Revolution; The declaration of war between England and France. brought him to the edge of a nervous breakdown. 1795 → William moved to Dorset with his sister Dorothy and he met Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Their friendship was fundamental for English Romantic Poetry. 1798 they produced first edition of 'Lyrical Ballads" 1800 they produced the second edition with a "Preface" typical of Wordsworth. Wordsworth was called Poet Laureate. He died in 1850. The manifesto of English Romanticism: For Wordsworth, poetry: Was solitary act → without solitude the poet cannot write poems; He deals with man, nature and everyday things In his 'Preface' he explained that the subjects he wants to treat are: everyday situations, incidents and ordinary people. Use simple language and call objects by their ordinary names; The subjects of his poetry are born from memory and his imagination: the poet sees things, after returning home he remembers them and re-writes with the means of imagination: 1. OBSERVATION; 2. SOLITARY STATE (home); 3. MEMORY (in the last part of "Daffodils" states that...

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poetry is born from memory); 4. POWER OF IMAGINATION premised him to communicate his knowledge - in fact the poet became a teacher. The motivation for the use of imagination is because the poet considers himself a teacher and he wants to teach the beauty of nature. DAFFODILS: Written in 1804 and was published in 1807 by Wordsworth This poem comes from an experience of Wordsworth: a walk in a field of daffodils in the Lake District with his sister Dorothy. The poet doesn't describe the moment when he saw the daffodils, but the memory of that moment. Analisi: The poet and nature exchanges role: Verse 1 "as a cloud'" the poet compares his lonely to that of a cloud → cloud symbolizes his integration with the natural world; Verse 3 "a crowd" the poet compares daffodils to person → crowd = folla di esseri umani The first sensation was joy → is located in: Color yellow of daffodils (verse 4 "golden daffodils"); Dance of daffodils in the verse 4-5 wind swings the flowers and it looks like they're dancing. This movement is emphasized with the alliteration of "s": "beside the lake, beneath the trees, fluttering and dancing in the breeze", this alliteration call the sound of the wind Words called joy like "gay" in verse 15, “jocund” in verse 16, "wealth" in verse 18, "bliss" in verse 22 and "pleasure” in verse 23. Riassunto: FIRST STANZA: the poet walks in a state of loneliness like a cloud over valleys and hills, but this mood is broken by a view of the daffodils. He says that daffodils were a crowd and uses personification of verbs "dancing" and "twinkle" for describing them. SECOND STANZA: the poet describes daffodils as a part of universal order like the stars in the Milky Way. He describes man as the only creature who doesn't feel at home because only poets have a greater sensibility and ability to understand the heart of things poets are teachers for people and their works find the deepest emotions in ordinary things. In line 11 there is a hyperbole because he inverted the order of phrase to emphasize the role of poets: "Ten thousand saw I...". the poet THIRD STANZA: the poet compares daffodils to the waves of the lake that dance uses a repetition in verse 17 "I gazed - and gazed - ..." for emphasized the importance of this vision FOURTH STANZA: the poet is happy because his heart is dancing with daffodils and he says the bliss of solitude (beatitudine di solitudine). Samuel Taylor Coleridge was born in Devonshire in 1772. He received an excellent education in the classics, but he didn't graduate at Cambridge University because failed. He was influenced by French Revolution ideals and he became a republican, but these ideals were disillusionment in fact, Coleridge and the poet Robert Southey planned to move to America and to establish a utopian community in Pennsylvania. This community called "Pantisocracy" and: SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE: This project failed. Every economic activity would be done as a community; Private ownership wouldn't exist 1795 Coleridge met William Wordsworth and they created an important collaboration for "Lyrical Ballads". 1800 → Coleridge settled in the Lake District. ● The best works of Coleridge were: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798): it is the first poem of the collection "Lyrical Ballads"; Christabel (1797): was an unfinished poem. Deals with a young girl under a witch's spell; Kubla Khan: was unfinished. The poet described this dream-like poem as a "psychological curiosity". 1817 he settled in London and wrote Biographia Literaria: a text of literary criticism and autobiography. He explained the dual task that Coleridge and Wordsworth had set themselves in the Lyrical Ballads. THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER: This ballad was divided into seven parts. The setting was a wide sea with days of hot and nights lit by the moon. The atmosphere is mysterious → thanks to the suspense and the combination of supernatural and real; The characters were: Old Mariner - he is the protagonist. His behavior is passive, in guilt and he is full of remorse. He also acts blindy, under compulsion. Shipmates they are stereotypes of mankind. In this ballad the contemplation of nature wasn't pantheistic (Christian faith of Coleridge didn't identify nature with divine), there are the presence of the ideal in real the nature had an essential role in poet creativity because stimulated the poet to find natural elements to talk about his emotions, feelings or the supernatural → natural elements became symbols to talk about the supernatural. Themes were: Nature; Dream may be the description of a dream; Allegory of the life of the soul between punishment and reward. Plot: An ancient mariner meets 3 people who are going to a wedding and he would tell his story: he says that his ship, after passing the Equator, was led by storms to the Polo South. In this place the mariner and his shipmates see an albatross, a white bird the shipmates make friends with an albatross, but one day the mariner kills the bird for no reason. The punishment of the mariner to find inner peace is to tell his story so that people learn not to kill the creatures by god. THE KILLING OF THE ALBATROSS: The albatross: Hope because this bird is the only creatures in a desert place; Nature; ● ● ● ● The poet because the bird represented the ability of poets to fly over the common people, the elevation of poets on common people with innocence and purity in fact the killing of albatross is a malediction because represented the killing of poet, so the killing of a teacher; Supernatural symbol because albatross is a bearer of fortune; In the religious tone represented the cross, in fact his killing is linked by the killing of Christ. The colours: GREY in verse 3 and 11 for the beard and eyes glittering of mariner YELLOW for the sun RED for the cheeks of bride GREY for the storm WITHEY for fog, snow, ice and moon GREEN is not a positive color, but negative because it leads to the horrible, disease → in this poetry green is compared to emerald. It's a transparent green that you can associate with ice. The colors grey, green and withey introduced the atmosphere of suspense. JOHN KEATS: John Keats he was able to fuse Romanticism passion and neoclassicism like Ugo Foscolo. He was born in London in 1795 in a modest family. He was considered THE POET → at 23 years he wrote "Ode on a Grecian Urn" His life wasn't fully happy: He was always sick, in fact he dies of tuberculosis in Rome his death happened in Italy because of his physical problems, he needed higher temperatures; Much part of his family died: his brother died for tuberculosis (like his mother) and his father died for an incident; ● ● He was very much loved by the people Shelley, at his death, dedicated him a work and a most important Victorian critic of English Literature described Keats "He is with Shakespeare" He wrote a series of masterful poems: The Eve of St Agnes; The Odes → Ode to a Nightingale, Ode on a Grecian Urn, To Autumn, Ode on a Melancholy, To Psyche; ● The ballad "La Belle Dame sans Merci"; Hyperion. ● He fell in love with Fanny Brawne, but for poverty, his bad health and religious pursuit of poetry he didn't marry her. ● ● The poetry: Keats's poetry includes use of the poetical personal pronoun "I” → this pronoun is linked for a universal "I" not for an individual context. There's not a pantheistic vision like Wordsworth. IMAGINATION for Keats had a supreme value and was twofold: 1. The world is artificial and in his poetry he imagines; 2. His poetry comes from imagination › is a vision of what he would like in human life. In his poetry there are 2 great themes: ● BEAUTY inspired by Greek (neoclassicism) because there are many expressions of beauty. Beauty for Keats is fundamental. Beauty produced a much deeper experience of joy and is divided in: Physical beauty is linked to life, enjoyment and decay of death; Spiritual beauty is related to eternity. ● IMMORTALITY OF THE ART key concept of romance. WORDSWORTH Pantheistic view because he believes in the goddess of nature. He sees nature as something that includes human nature in fact he believes that nature leads in the excellence of the child like Rousseau's ideal. Positive characteristics because there is relationship between man and nature he talks of this relationship in his poetry: man and nature are inseparable because man is an active participant in nature. Nature is a source of joy and pleasure because man can enter in peace with himself. His imagination gives life to flowers because the poet has a greater sensibility and he can penetrate in the heart of things unlike the common man. So Wordsworth uses imagination to teach men how to understand their feelings. COLERIDGE NATURE: Nature wasn't pantheistic, but there is the presence of the ideal in real life. Nature had an essential role in poet creativity because it stimulated the poet to find natural elements and to talk about his emotions or feelings. Nature became a supernatural symbol to talk about the supernatural. IMAGINATION: Mariner uses imagination for remember his story Primary imaginations: all men can be use this imag. secondary imag. : Only poets COLOURS: A symbol, for example the A symbol for example: colour yellow of daffodils represent joy KEATS Nature wasn't a pantheistic view. For Keats nature is beauty because produced a much deeper experiences of joy For Keats had a supreme value. The idea of imagination was twofold: 1. The world is artificial and in his poetry he imagines; 2. His poetry comes from imagination is a vision of what he would like in human life. Colours neutral → white of urn didn't have symbolic The colours are positive because nature is good. 1 generation: Simple Word familiar and vivid He called objects by their ordinary names. Arguments are about the beauty of nature and ordinary things. GREY for the beard, eyes glittering of mariner and storm YELLOW for the sun RED for the cheeks of bride WITHEY for fog, snow, ice and moon GREEN is not a positive color, but negative because it leads to the horrible, disease in this poetry green is compared to emerald. It's a transparent green that you can associate with ice. Colours are negative, in fact grey, whitey and green introduced atmosphere mysterious and suspance. STYLE AND LANGUAGES: 1 generation: Simple Word familiar and vivid The arguments are visionary and mysterious. value, but with his imagination he gives colours positive. 2 generation: Elevated Researched words elegant and references neoclassical → in fact for Keats Grecian are the best expression of beauty.

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Coleridge, Wordsworth and Keats

Coleridge, Wordsworth and Keats

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Coleridge, Wordsworth and Keats

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 WILLIAM WORDSWORTH:
William Wordsworth was born in Cumberland in the English Lake District in 1770.
1791 he graduated from St John's Colleg

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WILLIAM WORDSWORTH: William Wordsworth was born in Cumberland in the English Lake District in 1770. 1791 he graduated from St John's College in Cambridge. 1790 he had been in France. During this period he comes in contact with the democratic ideals of the French Revolution. In 1793 William Wordsworth for: The developments of the Revolution; The declaration of war between England and France. brought him to the edge of a nervous breakdown. 1795 → William moved to Dorset with his sister Dorothy and he met Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Their friendship was fundamental for English Romantic Poetry. 1798 they produced first edition of 'Lyrical Ballads" 1800 they produced the second edition with a "Preface" typical of Wordsworth. Wordsworth was called Poet Laureate. He died in 1850. The manifesto of English Romanticism: For Wordsworth, poetry: Was solitary act → without solitude the poet cannot write poems; He deals with man, nature and everyday things In his 'Preface' he explained that the subjects he wants to treat are: everyday situations, incidents and ordinary people. Use simple language and call objects by their ordinary names; The subjects of his poetry are born from memory and his imagination: the poet sees things, after returning home he remembers them and re-writes with the means of imagination: 1. OBSERVATION; 2. SOLITARY STATE (home); 3. MEMORY (in the last part of "Daffodils" states that...

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poetry is born from memory); 4. POWER OF IMAGINATION premised him to communicate his knowledge - in fact the poet became a teacher. The motivation for the use of imagination is because the poet considers himself a teacher and he wants to teach the beauty of nature. DAFFODILS: Written in 1804 and was published in 1807 by Wordsworth This poem comes from an experience of Wordsworth: a walk in a field of daffodils in the Lake District with his sister Dorothy. The poet doesn't describe the moment when he saw the daffodils, but the memory of that moment. Analisi: The poet and nature exchanges role: Verse 1 "as a cloud'" the poet compares his lonely to that of a cloud → cloud symbolizes his integration with the natural world; Verse 3 "a crowd" the poet compares daffodils to person → crowd = folla di esseri umani The first sensation was joy → is located in: Color yellow of daffodils (verse 4 "golden daffodils"); Dance of daffodils in the verse 4-5 wind swings the flowers and it looks like they're dancing. This movement is emphasized with the alliteration of "s": "beside the lake, beneath the trees, fluttering and dancing in the breeze", this alliteration call the sound of the wind Words called joy like "gay" in verse 15, “jocund” in verse 16, "wealth" in verse 18, "bliss" in verse 22 and "pleasure” in verse 23. Riassunto: FIRST STANZA: the poet walks in a state of loneliness like a cloud over valleys and hills, but this mood is broken by a view of the daffodils. He says that daffodils were a crowd and uses personification of verbs "dancing" and "twinkle" for describing them. SECOND STANZA: the poet describes daffodils as a part of universal order like the stars in the Milky Way. He describes man as the only creature who doesn't feel at home because only poets have a greater sensibility and ability to understand the heart of things poets are teachers for people and their works find the deepest emotions in ordinary things. In line 11 there is a hyperbole because he inverted the order of phrase to emphasize the role of poets: "Ten thousand saw I...". the poet THIRD STANZA: the poet compares daffodils to the waves of the lake that dance uses a repetition in verse 17 "I gazed - and gazed - ..." for emphasized the importance of this vision FOURTH STANZA: the poet is happy because his heart is dancing with daffodils and he says the bliss of solitude (beatitudine di solitudine). Samuel Taylor Coleridge was born in Devonshire in 1772. He received an excellent education in the classics, but he didn't graduate at Cambridge University because failed. He was influenced by French Revolution ideals and he became a republican, but these ideals were disillusionment in fact, Coleridge and the poet Robert Southey planned to move to America and to establish a utopian community in Pennsylvania. This community called "Pantisocracy" and: SAMUEL TAYLOR COLERIDGE: This project failed. Every economic activity would be done as a community; Private ownership wouldn't exist 1795 Coleridge met William Wordsworth and they created an important collaboration for "Lyrical Ballads". 1800 → Coleridge settled in the Lake District. ● The best works of Coleridge were: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (1798): it is the first poem of the collection "Lyrical Ballads"; Christabel (1797): was an unfinished poem. Deals with a young girl under a witch's spell; Kubla Khan: was unfinished. The poet described this dream-like poem as a "psychological curiosity". 1817 he settled in London and wrote Biographia Literaria: a text of literary criticism and autobiography. He explained the dual task that Coleridge and Wordsworth had set themselves in the Lyrical Ballads. THE RIME OF THE ANCIENT MARINER: This ballad was divided into seven parts. The setting was a wide sea with days of hot and nights lit by the moon. The atmosphere is mysterious → thanks to the suspense and the combination of supernatural and real; The characters were: Old Mariner - he is the protagonist. His behavior is passive, in guilt and he is full of remorse. He also acts blindy, under compulsion. Shipmates they are stereotypes of mankind. In this ballad the contemplation of nature wasn't pantheistic (Christian faith of Coleridge didn't identify nature with divine), there are the presence of the ideal in real the nature had an essential role in poet creativity because stimulated the poet to find natural elements to talk about his emotions, feelings or the supernatural → natural elements became symbols to talk about the supernatural. Themes were: Nature; Dream may be the description of a dream; Allegory of the life of the soul between punishment and reward. Plot: An ancient mariner meets 3 people who are going to a wedding and he would tell his story: he says that his ship, after passing the Equator, was led by storms to the Polo South. In this place the mariner and his shipmates see an albatross, a white bird the shipmates make friends with an albatross, but one day the mariner kills the bird for no reason. The punishment of the mariner to find inner peace is to tell his story so that people learn not to kill the creatures by god. THE KILLING OF THE ALBATROSS: The albatross: Hope because this bird is the only creatures in a desert place; Nature; ● ● ● ● The poet because the bird represented the ability of poets to fly over the common people, the elevation of poets on common people with innocence and purity in fact the killing of albatross is a malediction because represented the killing of poet, so the killing of a teacher; Supernatural symbol because albatross is a bearer of fortune; In the religious tone represented the cross, in fact his killing is linked by the killing of Christ. The colours: GREY in verse 3 and 11 for the beard and eyes glittering of mariner YELLOW for the sun RED for the cheeks of bride GREY for the storm WITHEY for fog, snow, ice and moon GREEN is not a positive color, but negative because it leads to the horrible, disease → in this poetry green is compared to emerald. It's a transparent green that you can associate with ice. The colors grey, green and withey introduced the atmosphere of suspense. JOHN KEATS: John Keats he was able to fuse Romanticism passion and neoclassicism like Ugo Foscolo. He was born in London in 1795 in a modest family. He was considered THE POET → at 23 years he wrote "Ode on a Grecian Urn" His life wasn't fully happy: He was always sick, in fact he dies of tuberculosis in Rome his death happened in Italy because of his physical problems, he needed higher temperatures; Much part of his family died: his brother died for tuberculosis (like his mother) and his father died for an incident; ● ● He was very much loved by the people Shelley, at his death, dedicated him a work and a most important Victorian critic of English Literature described Keats "He is with Shakespeare" He wrote a series of masterful poems: The Eve of St Agnes; The Odes → Ode to a Nightingale, Ode on a Grecian Urn, To Autumn, Ode on a Melancholy, To Psyche; ● The ballad "La Belle Dame sans Merci"; Hyperion. ● He fell in love with Fanny Brawne, but for poverty, his bad health and religious pursuit of poetry he didn't marry her. ● ● The poetry: Keats's poetry includes use of the poetical personal pronoun "I” → this pronoun is linked for a universal "I" not for an individual context. There's not a pantheistic vision like Wordsworth. IMAGINATION for Keats had a supreme value and was twofold: 1. The world is artificial and in his poetry he imagines; 2. His poetry comes from imagination › is a vision of what he would like in human life. In his poetry there are 2 great themes: ● BEAUTY inspired by Greek (neoclassicism) because there are many expressions of beauty. Beauty for Keats is fundamental. Beauty produced a much deeper experience of joy and is divided in: Physical beauty is linked to life, enjoyment and decay of death; Spiritual beauty is related to eternity. ● IMMORTALITY OF THE ART key concept of romance. WORDSWORTH Pantheistic view because he believes in the goddess of nature. He sees nature as something that includes human nature in fact he believes that nature leads in the excellence of the child like Rousseau's ideal. Positive characteristics because there is relationship between man and nature he talks of this relationship in his poetry: man and nature are inseparable because man is an active participant in nature. Nature is a source of joy and pleasure because man can enter in peace with himself. His imagination gives life to flowers because the poet has a greater sensibility and he can penetrate in the heart of things unlike the common man. So Wordsworth uses imagination to teach men how to understand their feelings. COLERIDGE NATURE: Nature wasn't pantheistic, but there is the presence of the ideal in real life. Nature had an essential role in poet creativity because it stimulated the poet to find natural elements and to talk about his emotions or feelings. Nature became a supernatural symbol to talk about the supernatural. IMAGINATION: Mariner uses imagination for remember his story Primary imaginations: all men can be use this imag. secondary imag. : Only poets COLOURS: A symbol, for example the A symbol for example: colour yellow of daffodils represent joy KEATS Nature wasn't a pantheistic view. For Keats nature is beauty because produced a much deeper experiences of joy For Keats had a supreme value. The idea of imagination was twofold: 1. The world is artificial and in his poetry he imagines; 2. His poetry comes from imagination is a vision of what he would like in human life. Colours neutral → white of urn didn't have symbolic The colours are positive because nature is good. 1 generation: Simple Word familiar and vivid He called objects by their ordinary names. Arguments are about the beauty of nature and ordinary things. GREY for the beard, eyes glittering of mariner and storm YELLOW for the sun RED for the cheeks of bride WITHEY for fog, snow, ice and moon GREEN is not a positive color, but negative because it leads to the horrible, disease in this poetry green is compared to emerald. It's a transparent green that you can associate with ice. Colours are negative, in fact grey, whitey and green introduced atmosphere mysterious and suspance. STYLE AND LANGUAGES: 1 generation: Simple Word familiar and vivid The arguments are visionary and mysterious. value, but with his imagination he gives colours positive. 2 generation: Elevated Researched words elegant and references neoclassical → in fact for Keats Grecian are the best expression of beauty.