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Gli antichi Celti: riassunto e curiosità

24/10/2022

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<p>6000 years ago, the land of England was already inhabited by people who cultivated cereals like wheat, barley, or oats, and raised cattl

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<p>6000 years ago, the land of England was already inhabited by people who cultivated cereals like wheat, barley, or oats, and raised cattl

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<p>6000 years ago, the land of England was already inhabited by people who cultivated cereals like wheat, barley, or oats, and raised cattl

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<p>6000 years ago, the land of England was already inhabited by people who cultivated cereals like wheat, barley, or oats, and raised cattl

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<p>6000 years ago, the land of England was already inhabited by people who cultivated cereals like wheat, barley, or oats, and raised cattl

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<p>6000 years ago, the land of England was already inhabited by people who cultivated cereals like wheat, barley, or oats, and raised cattl

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6000 years ago, the land of England was already inhabited by people who cultivated cereals like wheat, barley, or oats, and raised cattle, pigs, and sheep. Over four centuries, they changed the landscape and built ritual sites, including the famous Stonehenge in southwest England, around 3000 BC. In the Bronze Age, from about 2500-1000 BC, the islanders began to process metals, produce pottery and salt, and manufacture leather and cloth, which they traded abroad.

Around 700 BC, the Celts began to arrive from northwest Germany and settled in the country between 500 and 100 BC. Their language still remains in Welsh in Wales and Gaelic in Scotland and Ireland. The Celts were tall and muscular, with fair skin, blue eyes, and blond hair. They were engaged in agriculture, hunting, fishing, and metallurgy, mainly using the iron plough, invented by them. The Celts built huge forts on top of hills surrounded by ditches often filled with water and used as tribal centres and refuges in times of danger. Women enjoyed almost the same rights as men - they could choose their partners, manage property, and bring warriors to war, as seen in warrior queen Boadicea, who fought against the Romans. The Druids played a major role in Celtic religion and society, celebrating their ceremonies in the heart of the forest and worshiping natural elements like the sun, moon, trees, and rivers.

Julius Caesar led a Roman invasion of Britain in 55-54 BC, and the country was conquered in 43-47 AD under Emperor Claudius. The Romans built over 9,600 kilometers of paved roads in Britain, facilitating the movement of troops and connecting cities. They brought their culture, the Latin language, and Christianity to Britain. The Roman control of Britain ended in 409 as soldiers were forced to retreat to Rome to defend it from barbarian raiders, leaving the Romanized Celts to fight against the Saxon invaders from the North Sea region of Europe.

During the 5th and 6th centuries, the British were overwhelmed by the Anglo-Saxons, settling south of Hadrian's Wall. Their society was founded on loyalty and the early 7th century saw the formation of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as Heptarchy or Seven Kingdoms. The kingdom of Wessex prevailed in 829.

While the Romans had introduced Christianity to Britain, the Anglo-Saxons partly reintroduced pagan values. To bring Christianity back to England, Pope Gregory I the Great sent a monk, Augustine, in 597. This mission was successful, and soon, in 602, Canterbury Cathedral was founded and Augustine became the first archbishop of Canterbury, marking the beginning of Christianity in England.

Riassunto - Inglese

  • Around 700 BC, the Celts arrived in England from northwest Germany
  • The Celts were known for their tall and muscular build, fair skin, and blue eyes
  • They were skilled in agriculture, hunting, fishing, metallurgy, and built forts on top of hills
  • The Romans invaded Britain in 55-54 BC and conquered it in 43-47 AD
  • Christianization of England began with the arrival of a monk, Augustine, sent by Pope Gregory I in 597
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Q: Where did the Celts come from and when did they settle in Britain?

A: The Celts came from northwest Germany and settled in Britain between 500 and 100 BC.

Q: What were some of the characteristics of the Celts?

A: The Celts were tall and muscular, with fair skin, blue eyes, and blond hair. They were engaged in agriculture, hunting, fishing, and metallurgy.

Q: What was the role of women in Celtic society?

A: Women enjoyed almost the same rights as men in Celtic society. They could choose their partners, manage property, and bring warriors to war.

Q: Who led the Roman invasion of Britain and when did it take place?

A: Julius Caesar led the Roman invasion of Britain in 55-54 BC, and the country was conquered in 43-47 AD under Emperor Claudius.

Q: How did Christianity come to England, and who played a key role in its introduction?

A: To bring Christianity back to England, Pope Gregory I the Great sent a monk, Augustine, in 597. This mission was successful, and soon, in 602, Canterbury Cathedral was founded and Augustine became the first archbishop of Canterbury, marking the beginning of Christianity in England.

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