the Victorian age

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the Victorian age

 The Victorian age
The Victorian age took its name from the important, Queen Victoria. She began her reign during
the end of the first Indus

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introduzione periodo storico, progressi, nuove figure politiche ( Gladstone e Disraeli ), teoria di Darwin

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The Victorian age The Victorian age took its name from the important, Queen Victoria. She began her reign during the end of the first Industrial Revolution. "? This revolution brought many changes like new markets and a period of rapid expansion, starts to became very important manufacturing industry and international trade, instead of the old agricultural economy. Britain, in this period, became one of the most important and powerful nation in the world. But we can also say that this power came from the exploitation of colonies very rich in materials, and as well as with the poor workers, who worked in factories with a lowly salary This insane condition were not important for the ruling classes But during this century the worker position will change, step by step the working classes will get into the society, thanks to many reforms and progressive policies By 1850, Britain became a nation of town dweller, people starts to be attracted to cities, perhaps for the new promise of work in the new factories. The cities starts to grow the two more largest were London and Liverpool The life in the cities, was mostly good just for the upper and middle classes, but for works life was really hard Many poor were forced to leave into overcrowded slums, for the...

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buildings we can say that generally building regulations were ignored, instead talking about the sanitary condition were horrible. For example residents had to pump water to take bath at home and household waste, was dumped in courtyards. Moreover communal toilette were to connect with drainage pipes, as a result, sewage overflowed. All of this things contributed to the spread oof deadly diseases like smallpox, cholera and tuberculosis For fix this situation, the government promoted a campaign to clean up towns devastated by epidemics and built modern hospital. During the Victorian period, Britain, was politically and violently conservative, so the parliament was initially fearful about to gave the power of vote to the masses. Maybe that's one of the reasons why the fist reforms bill was a failure, first of all it excluded the working classes and it gave limited representation to the mercantilistic middle classes. Also industrial regions were not as well represented. So, all of these factors gave birth to the Chartist movement The goal of this movement was to gain political rights for the working classes And the main aims of the Chartist movement were six The people Charter, was rejected three times over a period of 10 years. The last Chartist petition had six million signature, the plane was to deliver it to the parliament, after a peaceful mass meeting that became violent, because the government sent thousands of soldiers and police there. Eventually, all the Chartist demands will became law in 1860 and 1918 (finally the votes was guaranteed for all men aver 21) except for annually elect parliament. The Victorian age saw the expansion of Britain's empire, but this expansion was for protect the trade routs to and from India. India was called the "jewel in the crow" of the empire It was so important for the many resources Trade with India included cotton, silk, tea and spices, was vital to the British economy that routes were safe. That's why Britain annexed many ne territories ( South Africa, Malaysia, Egypt, Burma and Afganistan) This expansionism created conflict by the Asian front, Russia threatened the Ottoman Empire, leading British and French military intervention and the Crimean war. Other problems in South Africa, the Dutch settlers provoked the Boer wars Moreover, during the 19th century, Germany and France became new economic powers, so started to be rivals of British empire, for the African`s colonies. Very important is Australia, that became indipendente rom Britai, which used it in the past as a prisons colony. Australia starts to develop as a " white colony " with a society based on the British model. The 19 century brought many changes Like the innovation of the steam powered machinery Thanks to that we had an important revolution in both transport and industry one of the example is the new system of railways, more faster and efficient In this period around 6.000 miles of railway were built in britan, and the first one was inaugurated in 1825. We had great innovations also in many others side of communication with the telephone moreover The printing became cheaper, so that brought a proliferation of literary production. The great exhibition Held in the "Cristal palace " in London expressed Prince Albert's vision to display the wonders of industry and much more. There were many different objects (100,000), from steam locomotives to a stuffed elephant from India The great exhibition became the symbol for Britain's dominant position We can say that, if we compared the technological progress in the USA with the one in Britain, the British was the slowest cause of the extremely reliable machines, there were no need to replace them; instead in the USA machines were made more cheaply and block down quickly, leading to more rapid technological innovations. The corn laws and the new poor law At the beginning of the first Industrial Revolution, the cost of leaving was very high cause of the corn laws. Thanks to that the price of corn was unrealistic high level by taxing imported corn, was literally impossible for poor buy bread. The corn laws were seen by ordinary people as a symbol of the aristocracy's feudal power over them. Protests by Lancaster millworker start to grew In September 1838, mill owners and and local whig politicians joined protests in the formation of anti corn law league. So this league start to fought against this measure, however it was a Tory prime minister, Robert Peel who finally replied the corn laws (1846) under the pressure of a succession of failures in the potato crop in Ireland, know as the "potato famine", for that many people died and others starts to emigrate to USA, Britain. But for sure, the most unjust pieces of legislation passed in the Victorian period, was the new poor law. It was drawn up, in 1834 and the main point was that poverty was a moral problem. The law stated that everyone who wanted to receive money or other helps from the poor laws authority had to be sent or commit themselves to special "workhouses", normally hard and violence places. Charles Dickens was a opponent of the poor law, cause for him was inhumane. He also spoke about that, and the condition of the workhouses in Oliver Twist. ( the first major English novel) Gladstone and Disraeli During the Victorian period, we had two important figures William Gladstone and Benjamin Disraeli. Gladstone was a Prime minister four separate times, his career was about six year, originally he was a Tory leader after became a liberal and he was a great advocate of free trade. He narrowly failed about to bring self government for Ireland, and was important for a bunch of reforms. His main political opponent was Disraeli, who was twice a prime minister ( 1868/1874,80 ), he was important for the creation of conservative Labour Party, he was able to secure working classes support for the Tories. Both Gladstone e Disraeli support a policy of gradual incorporation of the working classes through reform. ( this was the best way to avoid insurrection in Europe) Was also a way to provide industry and service diversified and became more complex. They both supported the elementary education act, which gave to the children the normal basic education rights and the trade union act which made union legal. The ideology of reform eventually lead to the formation of an independent Labour Party ( 1893), Also, elementary education became free and the school-leaving age was raised to twelve. For the first time working classes began to enjoy some limited leisure time. Time of new ideas The Victorian age were responsible or some innovations. We had many changes like modern democracy, feminism, the unions action of workers, socialism, Marxism and other modern movements took form. Important figure, in this period is John Stuart Mill, a philosopher and right activist, who tried and failed to obtain vote for women. The pressure for female equality start to grow, thanks to various women groups uniting in Mrs Fawxett`s national union of Women's suffrage society. Then became the group, union more radical also know as " suffragettes " led by Emmiline and Christabel Pankhurst. This gradual shift of more progressive, Liberal politicians towards broadly socialist principles was assisted by the London Fabian society ( a large society of socialist intellectual) Darwin's theory of evolution Maybe the most import idea, of the Victorian age, was the Darwin's theory of evolution, it gradually undermined Victorian religious beliefs, which were still about creationism and he marked the beginning of a crisis in values which continued into the 20th century. The theory of natural selection demonstrated that the deterring factors in the survival and evolution of a species were selection, reproduction and variation. Darwin was the first to give this theory full scientific weight and to introduce it to the wider public. His theory was divided in two parts: in the first one, he talked about the idea that diverse forms of life on the planet had gradually evolved, the second part is about the struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest. This happen through a process know as "natural selection". Important is also that, unfortunately, Darwin's ideas found political application in theories of radical superiority and fitness that were a vital part of the ideology of imperialism. This theory was used to justify the theories from the superiority of the white race and anti-semitism to the idea that lower classes were less evolved and had a natural attraction to vice and crime.

the Victorian age

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Shanti Melgrati

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the Victorian age

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 The Victorian age
The Victorian age took its name from the important, Queen Victoria. She began her reign during
the end of the first Indus

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Un appunto così carino per la scuola 😍😍, è davvero utile!

introduzione periodo storico, progressi, nuove figure politiche ( Gladstone e Disraeli ), teoria di Darwin

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The Victorian age The Victorian age took its name from the important, Queen Victoria. She began her reign during the end of the first Industrial Revolution. "? This revolution brought many changes like new markets and a period of rapid expansion, starts to became very important manufacturing industry and international trade, instead of the old agricultural economy. Britain, in this period, became one of the most important and powerful nation in the world. But we can also say that this power came from the exploitation of colonies very rich in materials, and as well as with the poor workers, who worked in factories with a lowly salary This insane condition were not important for the ruling classes But during this century the worker position will change, step by step the working classes will get into the society, thanks to many reforms and progressive policies By 1850, Britain became a nation of town dweller, people starts to be attracted to cities, perhaps for the new promise of work in the new factories. The cities starts to grow the two more largest were London and Liverpool The life in the cities, was mostly good just for the upper and middle classes, but for works life was really hard Many poor were forced to leave into overcrowded slums, for the...

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buildings we can say that generally building regulations were ignored, instead talking about the sanitary condition were horrible. For example residents had to pump water to take bath at home and household waste, was dumped in courtyards. Moreover communal toilette were to connect with drainage pipes, as a result, sewage overflowed. All of this things contributed to the spread oof deadly diseases like smallpox, cholera and tuberculosis For fix this situation, the government promoted a campaign to clean up towns devastated by epidemics and built modern hospital. During the Victorian period, Britain, was politically and violently conservative, so the parliament was initially fearful about to gave the power of vote to the masses. Maybe that's one of the reasons why the fist reforms bill was a failure, first of all it excluded the working classes and it gave limited representation to the mercantilistic middle classes. Also industrial regions were not as well represented. So, all of these factors gave birth to the Chartist movement The goal of this movement was to gain political rights for the working classes And the main aims of the Chartist movement were six The people Charter, was rejected three times over a period of 10 years. The last Chartist petition had six million signature, the plane was to deliver it to the parliament, after a peaceful mass meeting that became violent, because the government sent thousands of soldiers and police there. Eventually, all the Chartist demands will became law in 1860 and 1918 (finally the votes was guaranteed for all men aver 21) except for annually elect parliament. The Victorian age saw the expansion of Britain's empire, but this expansion was for protect the trade routs to and from India. India was called the "jewel in the crow" of the empire It was so important for the many resources Trade with India included cotton, silk, tea and spices, was vital to the British economy that routes were safe. That's why Britain annexed many ne territories ( South Africa, Malaysia, Egypt, Burma and Afganistan) This expansionism created conflict by the Asian front, Russia threatened the Ottoman Empire, leading British and French military intervention and the Crimean war. Other problems in South Africa, the Dutch settlers provoked the Boer wars Moreover, during the 19th century, Germany and France became new economic powers, so started to be rivals of British empire, for the African`s colonies. Very important is Australia, that became indipendente rom Britai, which used it in the past as a prisons colony. Australia starts to develop as a " white colony " with a society based on the British model. The 19 century brought many changes Like the innovation of the steam powered machinery Thanks to that we had an important revolution in both transport and industry one of the example is the new system of railways, more faster and efficient In this period around 6.000 miles of railway were built in britan, and the first one was inaugurated in 1825. We had great innovations also in many others side of communication with the telephone moreover The printing became cheaper, so that brought a proliferation of literary production. The great exhibition Held in the "Cristal palace " in London expressed Prince Albert's vision to display the wonders of industry and much more. There were many different objects (100,000), from steam locomotives to a stuffed elephant from India The great exhibition became the symbol for Britain's dominant position We can say that, if we compared the technological progress in the USA with the one in Britain, the British was the slowest cause of the extremely reliable machines, there were no need to replace them; instead in the USA machines were made more cheaply and block down quickly, leading to more rapid technological innovations. The corn laws and the new poor law At the beginning of the first Industrial Revolution, the cost of leaving was very high cause of the corn laws. Thanks to that the price of corn was unrealistic high level by taxing imported corn, was literally impossible for poor buy bread. The corn laws were seen by ordinary people as a symbol of the aristocracy's feudal power over them. Protests by Lancaster millworker start to grew In September 1838, mill owners and and local whig politicians joined protests in the formation of anti corn law league. So this league start to fought against this measure, however it was a Tory prime minister, Robert Peel who finally replied the corn laws (1846) under the pressure of a succession of failures in the potato crop in Ireland, know as the "potato famine", for that many people died and others starts to emigrate to USA, Britain. But for sure, the most unjust pieces of legislation passed in the Victorian period, was the new poor law. It was drawn up, in 1834 and the main point was that poverty was a moral problem. The law stated that everyone who wanted to receive money or other helps from the poor laws authority had to be sent or commit themselves to special "workhouses", normally hard and violence places. Charles Dickens was a opponent of the poor law, cause for him was inhumane. He also spoke about that, and the condition of the workhouses in Oliver Twist. ( the first major English novel) Gladstone and Disraeli During the Victorian period, we had two important figures William Gladstone and Benjamin Disraeli. Gladstone was a Prime minister four separate times, his career was about six year, originally he was a Tory leader after became a liberal and he was a great advocate of free trade. He narrowly failed about to bring self government for Ireland, and was important for a bunch of reforms. His main political opponent was Disraeli, who was twice a prime minister ( 1868/1874,80 ), he was important for the creation of conservative Labour Party, he was able to secure working classes support for the Tories. Both Gladstone e Disraeli support a policy of gradual incorporation of the working classes through reform. ( this was the best way to avoid insurrection in Europe) Was also a way to provide industry and service diversified and became more complex. They both supported the elementary education act, which gave to the children the normal basic education rights and the trade union act which made union legal. The ideology of reform eventually lead to the formation of an independent Labour Party ( 1893), Also, elementary education became free and the school-leaving age was raised to twelve. For the first time working classes began to enjoy some limited leisure time. Time of new ideas The Victorian age were responsible or some innovations. We had many changes like modern democracy, feminism, the unions action of workers, socialism, Marxism and other modern movements took form. Important figure, in this period is John Stuart Mill, a philosopher and right activist, who tried and failed to obtain vote for women. The pressure for female equality start to grow, thanks to various women groups uniting in Mrs Fawxett`s national union of Women's suffrage society. Then became the group, union more radical also know as " suffragettes " led by Emmiline and Christabel Pankhurst. This gradual shift of more progressive, Liberal politicians towards broadly socialist principles was assisted by the London Fabian society ( a large society of socialist intellectual) Darwin's theory of evolution Maybe the most import idea, of the Victorian age, was the Darwin's theory of evolution, it gradually undermined Victorian religious beliefs, which were still about creationism and he marked the beginning of a crisis in values which continued into the 20th century. The theory of natural selection demonstrated that the deterring factors in the survival and evolution of a species were selection, reproduction and variation. Darwin was the first to give this theory full scientific weight and to introduce it to the wider public. His theory was divided in two parts: in the first one, he talked about the idea that diverse forms of life on the planet had gradually evolved, the second part is about the struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest. This happen through a process know as "natural selection". Important is also that, unfortunately, Darwin's ideas found political application in theories of radical superiority and fitness that were a vital part of the ideology of imperialism. This theory was used to justify the theories from the superiority of the white race and anti-semitism to the idea that lower classes were less evolved and had a natural attraction to vice and crime.