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the romantic age

the romantic age

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Valentina Ruggieri

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the romantic age

 •The Romanticism
With the term romanticism we mean a cultural phenomenon involving the whole of western world in a
crucial time in history.

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l’età del romanticismo, le principali rivoluzioni e Coleridge e Wordsworth

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•The Romanticism With the term romanticism we mean a cultural phenomenon involving the whole of western world in a crucial time in history. It's roots can be found in the Strum and Drang movement which developed between the 1760s and 1780s in Germany as a celebration of feelings against the enlightenment rationalism. It was a period of revolution in several field. The main revolutions were: the French, the American and the industrial one. The industrial revolution The new ideas of freedom for the individual also gave rise to the philosophy of economic liberalism, which meant free trade and unrestrained economic activity, summed up in the expression ‘laissez-faire' (let do'). The Industrial Revolution took place in England from about 1760 to about 1840 and it spread to other parts of the world. It was a process of change from an agrarian, handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture. Some technical innovations, favoured by the application of science to industry, were: the use of new materials; the use of new energy sources; the invention of new machines that increased production and reduced expenditure of human energy: developments in transport and communications; •⠀⠀⠀a new organisation of work, like the factory system. The Industrial Revolution consequences were a lot and very bad: unemployment: new machines meant a drastic reduction...

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in the number of people employed in agriculture work; many people had to leave their homes to look for work and were reduced to starvation. terrible conditions: masses of badly-paid, badly-fed and badly-clothed labourers worked in the factories for up to 16 hours a day, with appalling hygiene and safety conditions; exploitation of women and children: women were paid less than men, and children were paid even less; overcrowded slums: workers lived in overcrowded slums; the masses of labourers lived in overpopulated poor areas in terrible conditions. The industrial revolution brought a change in the way people worked because there were introduced new machines, in this way there was new employment for people, that before worked on fields and now in factories, which were built nearby city. This brought another change in where people lived because everybody moved to where factories were built. For this reason, cities became bigger and overcrowded, consequently, hygiene was an issue. Here was born the working class, that grew the idea of these groups of people (trade union) and wanted its rights because in this period people gained awareness of them. •The American Revolution When George III came to the throne, Great Britain was in control of the seas and was at peace. The American colonies were rich and populated, but the relationship with the mother country altered when the British government tried to impose strict controls on the colonies by appointing a governor and claimed the right to tax its colonies. The American colonies stated that since they had no representatives in the British Parliament no taxes could be levied on them: their principle was "No taxation without representation". The 13 American colonies then met in Philadelphia and George Washington was given military command. On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence, drawn up by Thomas Jefferson, was approved. It stated the principle that all men are born equal, with the same rights to life, freedom and happiness. The poetry of nature, At the centre of the romantic period there was poetry which gave expression to individual feelings. Imagination had a principal role in poetry because thank to imagination the poet could discover a truth beyond the power of reason. The poet was seen as a prophet because he mediated between man and nature thanks to imagination. He had to point out the evils of society, to give voice to the ideals of freedom, beauty and truth. In this period a child was considered pure than and adult because wasn't corrupted by society. Child was closer to god so children was a state to be admired. Rousseau thought civilisations lead to the restriction of the individual's personality and produce corruption, instead natural behaviour which was impulsive, was in contrast to behaviour which is governed by reason. • There was a pantheistic view of nature, so nature was considered the expression of god. Nature became a main source of inspiration, comfort and joy, a means to covey moral truths and a stimulus to thought. Wordsworth Lyrical ballads: Wordsworth developed a pantheistic view of nature and believe that children have a privileged connection with god, since they have a closer connection with heaven. As for language, he use a simple language, it was more simple to express their feelings. The language was the language of peasant, but it was purified from dialect. The ballad looked back to Middle Ages, it was a popular form of poetry characterised by vivid and concrete images of poetic art. Daffodils: This poem was written two years after the poet took a walk in Lake District and saw a long line of daffodil. He says that he "wandered lonely as a cloud", and that reminds us of those moods when we are not fully related to the world around us. This mood was suddenly broken by the sight of the daffodils which are seen as a 'crowd'. He describes the daffodils and compares them to stars shining in the milky way. He too felt happy because the disorder he had previously in his mind had been appeased by the magic of nature. He describes that the poet's capability not only of organising experience so that it becomes coherent and delightful, but also of recalling it at future times. This kind of solitude is very different from the melancholy loneliness described at the beginning of the poem. In this condition the poet finds his heart dancing with joy, a joy which revives the pleasure participated in when he observed the dance of the daffodils in the breeze. Nature: Wordsworth has a pantheistic view of nature: Nature is a clear manifestation of God. The poet has a special connection to God and nature. There is a contrast between Nature and the urban city: the peace and purity of the eld of daffodils is in fact in contrast with the confusion and corruption of the city. For this reason he prefers rural people because they are not corrupted by civilisation. Nature is a source of joy and happiness for man, therefore it is the inspiration for his poems. In his poems nature become humanised. Coleridge The rime of the ancient mariner: In the first part the mariner met and stopped a wedding guest, a man on his way to a wedding, to tell him his story, but he didn't want to heard his story and asked him to go away from he. But later, the mariner convinced him to listen his story thanks to his glitter eye that was hypnotic. So the mariner started to tell his story and described how he killed an albatross shooting, and how this act of cruelty brought bad luck to the ship and its crew because the albatross represented nature so the mariner went against nature. So after this act of cruelty, the crew had to face many misfortunes and blamed the mariner for that. However later, the ship was driven to the equator by the south wind, and there was a good weather so the crew wasn't angry with the mariner anymore. But this crime has angered the supernatural spirits who follow the ship and block it in the sea, where there wasn't wind anymore and but there were under a burning sun so the mariner and the crew were terribly thirsty and blamed the mariner a second time. The crew decided to put the dead albatross around his neck as a sign of his guilty and suddenly a ship arrived from the west with on board death, a skeleton, and the nightmare death-in-life. They were playing dice with the life of the mariner and the crew: death wins the crew's souls, so the crew die and the only survivor was the mariner, who partially expiated his sin by praying. So, when the ship sank the mariner was saved and on a land a good hermit approached him and he faced the final penance for his deed: for the rest of his days he must bear the burden of guilt, and to expiate his fault his forced to travel 'from land to land' to tell his story to the people he meets because in this way men could learn, through his example, to love and respect nature.

Inglese /

the romantic age

the romantic age

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Valentina Ruggieri

1 Followers
 

Inglese

 

5ªl

Appunto

the romantic age

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 •The Romanticism
With the term romanticism we mean a cultural phenomenon involving the whole of western world in a
crucial time in history.

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Un appunto così carino per la scuola 😍😍, è davvero utile!

l’età del romanticismo, le principali rivoluzioni e Coleridge e Wordsworth

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•The Romanticism With the term romanticism we mean a cultural phenomenon involving the whole of western world in a crucial time in history. It's roots can be found in the Strum and Drang movement which developed between the 1760s and 1780s in Germany as a celebration of feelings against the enlightenment rationalism. It was a period of revolution in several field. The main revolutions were: the French, the American and the industrial one. The industrial revolution The new ideas of freedom for the individual also gave rise to the philosophy of economic liberalism, which meant free trade and unrestrained economic activity, summed up in the expression ‘laissez-faire' (let do'). The Industrial Revolution took place in England from about 1760 to about 1840 and it spread to other parts of the world. It was a process of change from an agrarian, handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture. Some technical innovations, favoured by the application of science to industry, were: the use of new materials; the use of new energy sources; the invention of new machines that increased production and reduced expenditure of human energy: developments in transport and communications; •⠀⠀⠀a new organisation of work, like the factory system. The Industrial Revolution consequences were a lot and very bad: unemployment: new machines meant a drastic reduction...

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in the number of people employed in agriculture work; many people had to leave their homes to look for work and were reduced to starvation. terrible conditions: masses of badly-paid, badly-fed and badly-clothed labourers worked in the factories for up to 16 hours a day, with appalling hygiene and safety conditions; exploitation of women and children: women were paid less than men, and children were paid even less; overcrowded slums: workers lived in overcrowded slums; the masses of labourers lived in overpopulated poor areas in terrible conditions. The industrial revolution brought a change in the way people worked because there were introduced new machines, in this way there was new employment for people, that before worked on fields and now in factories, which were built nearby city. This brought another change in where people lived because everybody moved to where factories were built. For this reason, cities became bigger and overcrowded, consequently, hygiene was an issue. Here was born the working class, that grew the idea of these groups of people (trade union) and wanted its rights because in this period people gained awareness of them. •The American Revolution When George III came to the throne, Great Britain was in control of the seas and was at peace. The American colonies were rich and populated, but the relationship with the mother country altered when the British government tried to impose strict controls on the colonies by appointing a governor and claimed the right to tax its colonies. The American colonies stated that since they had no representatives in the British Parliament no taxes could be levied on them: their principle was "No taxation without representation". The 13 American colonies then met in Philadelphia and George Washington was given military command. On July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence, drawn up by Thomas Jefferson, was approved. It stated the principle that all men are born equal, with the same rights to life, freedom and happiness. The poetry of nature, At the centre of the romantic period there was poetry which gave expression to individual feelings. Imagination had a principal role in poetry because thank to imagination the poet could discover a truth beyond the power of reason. The poet was seen as a prophet because he mediated between man and nature thanks to imagination. He had to point out the evils of society, to give voice to the ideals of freedom, beauty and truth. In this period a child was considered pure than and adult because wasn't corrupted by society. Child was closer to god so children was a state to be admired. Rousseau thought civilisations lead to the restriction of the individual's personality and produce corruption, instead natural behaviour which was impulsive, was in contrast to behaviour which is governed by reason. • There was a pantheistic view of nature, so nature was considered the expression of god. Nature became a main source of inspiration, comfort and joy, a means to covey moral truths and a stimulus to thought. Wordsworth Lyrical ballads: Wordsworth developed a pantheistic view of nature and believe that children have a privileged connection with god, since they have a closer connection with heaven. As for language, he use a simple language, it was more simple to express their feelings. The language was the language of peasant, but it was purified from dialect. The ballad looked back to Middle Ages, it was a popular form of poetry characterised by vivid and concrete images of poetic art. Daffodils: This poem was written two years after the poet took a walk in Lake District and saw a long line of daffodil. He says that he "wandered lonely as a cloud", and that reminds us of those moods when we are not fully related to the world around us. This mood was suddenly broken by the sight of the daffodils which are seen as a 'crowd'. He describes the daffodils and compares them to stars shining in the milky way. He too felt happy because the disorder he had previously in his mind had been appeased by the magic of nature. He describes that the poet's capability not only of organising experience so that it becomes coherent and delightful, but also of recalling it at future times. This kind of solitude is very different from the melancholy loneliness described at the beginning of the poem. In this condition the poet finds his heart dancing with joy, a joy which revives the pleasure participated in when he observed the dance of the daffodils in the breeze. Nature: Wordsworth has a pantheistic view of nature: Nature is a clear manifestation of God. The poet has a special connection to God and nature. There is a contrast between Nature and the urban city: the peace and purity of the eld of daffodils is in fact in contrast with the confusion and corruption of the city. For this reason he prefers rural people because they are not corrupted by civilisation. Nature is a source of joy and happiness for man, therefore it is the inspiration for his poems. In his poems nature become humanised. Coleridge The rime of the ancient mariner: In the first part the mariner met and stopped a wedding guest, a man on his way to a wedding, to tell him his story, but he didn't want to heard his story and asked him to go away from he. But later, the mariner convinced him to listen his story thanks to his glitter eye that was hypnotic. So the mariner started to tell his story and described how he killed an albatross shooting, and how this act of cruelty brought bad luck to the ship and its crew because the albatross represented nature so the mariner went against nature. So after this act of cruelty, the crew had to face many misfortunes and blamed the mariner for that. However later, the ship was driven to the equator by the south wind, and there was a good weather so the crew wasn't angry with the mariner anymore. But this crime has angered the supernatural spirits who follow the ship and block it in the sea, where there wasn't wind anymore and but there were under a burning sun so the mariner and the crew were terribly thirsty and blamed the mariner a second time. The crew decided to put the dead albatross around his neck as a sign of his guilty and suddenly a ship arrived from the west with on board death, a skeleton, and the nightmare death-in-life. They were playing dice with the life of the mariner and the crew: death wins the crew's souls, so the crew die and the only survivor was the mariner, who partially expiated his sin by praying. So, when the ship sank the mariner was saved and on a land a good hermit approached him and he faced the final penance for his deed: for the rest of his days he must bear the burden of guilt, and to expiate his fault his forced to travel 'from land to land' to tell his story to the people he meets because in this way men could learn, through his example, to love and respect nature.